We determined the diagnostic accuracy of the Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire (ECQ) in 1st generation Black African-Caribbean UK. To determine whether the Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire (ECQ) can be used as a screening tool for detecting peripheral arterial disease in patients with . The WHO/Rose Questionnaire on intermittent claudication was developed in for use in epidemiological surveys, and has been widely used. Several.
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Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire. Translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire ECQ a specific tool to assess intermittent claudication. It was applied to individuals: In stage 1, participants filled out the ECQ and another questionnaire on risk factors and cardiovascular history.
In stage 2, participants had anthropometric measures claudiaction ankle-brachial index ABI at rest measured by questionnair Doppler. In case of doubt, vascular edinburhg test was applied VTT. The Brazilian Portuguese version of the Edinburgh claudication questionnaire maintained good sensitivity and specificity and can be recommended for screening of PAD in clinical practice and epidemiological research questinonaire Brazil.
Intermittent claudication; questionaire; translating process ; transcultural adaptation. Peripheral Arterial Disease PAD is a result of artery lumen narrowing and stiffening quetionnaire the lower limbs as part of the process of systemic atherosclerotic disease.
Prevalence is high, and is associated to high risk questionnaite fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events death, myocardial infarction and cerebral vascular accident Intermittent claudication is a classical symptom in the PAD condition.
It occurs as a result of reduced blood flow to skeletal muscle tissue in lower limbs during exercise. Claudication is characterized by pain or discomfort in the calf, thigh, or gluteus region while walking. Symptoms disappear after less than 10 minutes at rest.
Prevalence ranges from 0. The use of claudication questionnaires, however, may help screening PAD both for epidemiologic research purposes and in clinical practice. Claudication questionnaires validated in Brazilian Portuguese are not available in this country today. However, no published data were found on questionnaire validation or on performance in Brazilian Portuguese 5. The purpose of the present study was the translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire Edinhurgh.
Translation of questionnaire – The translation and cultural adaptation of the original version into Brazilian Portuguese were performed based on methodology previously published 6following authorization by Professor Gerry Fowkes, from the University of Edinburgh. The translation was esinburgh independently by three members in our team and by two English teachers. As a result, five renditions were made available, with slight differences.
The versions were then compared and discussed in a meeting where a consensual choice was made for Version 1. That version was then edinburth to three other independent translators who are fluent in English and who were not familiar with the original version for backtranslation into English.
The three new versions were then compared to generate a consensual version in English Version 2. When compared to the original version, Version 2 showed to be grammatically and semantically equivalent, which allowed Lcaudication 1 to be accepted by the group as the final version for the questionnaire in Brazilian Portuguese. Individuals under research were invited through mass communication media television, radio, newspapers to participate in the I Campaign to Fight Peripheral Arterial Disease PAD.
ECQ – Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire
All participants signed the Informed Consent Form. ABI measure and calculation – To calculate ABI, systolic pressures of brachial arteries, dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial arteries were measured bilaterally after 5 minutes at rest in supine position using a handheld vascular Doppler and aneroid pressure equipment.
Four cuff sizes were used small size adult, median size adult, large size adult and thighbased on right arm circumference at middle position between acromium and olecranium. ABI was calculated for each lower limb using arm highest systolic pressure as denominator, and ankle highest pressure as numerator 7.
Vascular treadmill test – Vascular treadmill test was performed only for ABI threshold values 0. Pressures were measured with vascular Doppler in supine position at rest and after exercise.
If ABI was between 0. Statistical analysis – Questionnaire performance was assessed by SAS software, version 8. Diagnosis accuracy was calculated by dividing the number of individuals under correct classification on questionnaire summing up of truly positives and truly negatives by the total number of individuals under assessment. Females were predominant In the PAD group individuals were older Males were predominant No difference was found between the groups in regard to schooling 7.
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As for traditional risk factors, higher prevalence was reported for diabetes, dyslipidemia, and smoking in the PAD group. Claudication prevalence, typical claudication and the lack of one or more ankle pulses was significantly higher in PAD individuals Table 1. As the Edinburgh Questionnaire was developed, performance of the nine questions from the Rose Questionnaire were analyzed to verify whether any changes were needed.
At process ending, the questionnaire was reduced to six questions. A diagram was added for exact site of coaudication, thus making self-application easier. InAboyans and cols. Inin another publication of the French version validation, Lacroix and cols.
That may have occurred due to differences in population characteristics, and in the methodology used for validation. In the English version, PAD diagnosis was carried out based on clinical assessment only, which increased the chances of matching questionnaire results and the presence of PAD, since both focus symptomatic PAD. The Questionnnaire version used a methodology similar to the French version 11where the choice was made for a more objective diagnosis method ABI measurewhich detects both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, and which is closer to clinical practice.
Through this methodology, an asymptomatic PAD case would be classified as “false positive”, whereas claudocation diagnosis based on clinical history only would be more likely to be classified as “truly negative”.
On the other hand, a case reporting no PAD with positive claudication on questionnaire could be confirmed by clinical history “truly positive”but not by ABI measure “false positive”. No significant differences could be observed in the performance of the Brazilian Portuguese version among elderly and non-elderly, which allows it to be used for that high risk population for PAD as well.
No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. Mortality over four years in SHEP participants with low ankle-brachial index.
J Am Geriatr Soc. The epidemiology of peripheral arterial disease: Cross-cultural adaptation of health-related quality of life measures: Editora Segmento Farma; Diagnosis and treatment of chronic arterial insufficiency of the lower extremities: The diagnosis of ischaemic heart pain and intermittent claudication in field surveys.
The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of traditional clinical evaluation of peripheral arterial disease: The Edimburgh Claudication Questionnaire: Marcia Makdisse Rua Dr. Manuscript received July 13, ; revised manuscript received November 6, ; accepted January 17, All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License.
Services on Demand Journal. Introduction Peripheral Arterial Disease PAD is a result of artery lumen narrowing and stiffening in the cluadication limbs as part of the process of systemic atherosclerotic disease.
Methods Translation of questionnaire – The translation and cultural adaptation of the original version into Brazilian Portuguese were performed based on methodology previously published 6following authorization by Professor Gerry Fowkes, from the University of Edinburgh. Potential Conflict of Interest No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported. How to cite this article.